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2014-王 东: 认知科学中的循环问题研究
  作者:王东    文章来源:作者惠寄    点击数:    更新时间:2014-7-3    
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题名:认知科学中的循环问题研究

作者:王东

指导老师:刘大椿

答辩时间:2014518

 

 

0.1认知科学中循环问题的性质

0.2相关的研究和文献综述

0.3论文的写作动机、目的及结构

1 认知科学中循环问题的提出

1.1 循环现象与循环问题

1.1.1 形形色色的循环现象

1.1.2 循环现象的特性及种类

1.1.3 循环问题的特性

1.2认知科学中的循环现象及循环问题

1.2.1认识自我中的循环现象和循环问题

1.2.2认知科学中的循环现象

1.2.3认知科学中循问题的层次和种类

2  表征-计算进路中的循环

2.1表征-计算进路中的思维方式及其循环

2.1.1表征-计算进路的具体实现

2.1.2表征-计算进路的思维方式

2.2表征-计算进路中思维方式具体体现及其循环现象

2.2.1心智的表征理论和计算理论的思想渊源及其思维特质      

2.2.2数字计算机的思想渊源及其思维特质

2.2.3高阶思维方式的循环      

3  具身的生成进路中的循环

3.1具身的生成进路

3.1.1 具身的二重性——人类经验和认知科学的循环

3.1.2 作为生成的认知     

3.1.3具身的生成进路中的循环现象

3.2构成循环的思维方式之案例分析

3.2.1颜色案例分析

3.2.2对颜色案例的反驳论证

4  认知科学中循环现象带来的循环问题

4.1认知科学中循环现象的特性

4.1.1 思维方式层面的循环现象

4.1.2 循环现象的特性

4.2认知科学中的循环问题分析

4.2.1对象语言与元语言的混淆问题

4.2.2多研究进路并存问题

4.3 研究循环问题的意义

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参考文献       126

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认知科学的主要研究对象是人类的心灵(mind)和智能(intelligence),即人之为人的那部分特性。而认知科学本身作为一种人类活动,是一种高级的认知活动,所以认知科学中存在着这么一个认知对象与认知主体以及认知过程本身之间的循环。这种循环可以从第一人称和第三人称即主观和客观两个角度来看。从第一人称的角度看这种循环是一种对于“自我”的认识,而从第三人称的角度看,这种循环是某个事物认识其自身的过程。

人类的大脑和心智是目前已知的宇宙中最复杂的事物。由此为基础而形成的人类的认知行为也是复杂的,涵盖从低阶的感知觉到高阶的思维方式等种种行为特性。认知科学作为一种人类的复杂的认知活动,去研究人类的心智这么一个复杂的事物,这其中所包含的循环具有多个层次的特性。由于对人类低阶认知特性知之甚少,同时人类在漫长的社会进化和文化积累中总结出了很多刻画高阶认知特性的词汇和规律,所以本文主要分析涉及到高阶认知循环现象。

从物质性的水循环到更复杂的生物遗传信息的循环、悖论中的循环以及抽象的思维循环,循环现象普遍的存在于从自然界到人类思维的各个领域。而从这些众多种类的循环现象中,可以抽象出循环的两个特征:至少两个相似或相同的事物;两个事物之间的关系。同时可以有多种对于循环现象分类的方法,其中对于刻画认知科学中的循环最重要的是通过是否含有指涉和意义区分为自然性的循环和语义性的循环。这两类循环也对应于逻辑性的循环与时间性的循环以及第一人称循环与第三人称循环。而认知科学中的循环由于可以从第一人称和第三人称的角度去刻画,所以同时具有自然性循环和语义性循环的特征。同时由于人类的认知行为的复杂性,认知科学中的循环可以分为两种类型的层次,第一种是纵向的而第二种是横向的。

表征计算进路是认知科学中的主流的研究进路。根据表征结构的不同,其又可以分为不同的子进路。其中基于符号的和基于联结的是两种主要的方法。通过分析各种不同的表征结构以及基于其上的计算,同时通过梳理心智的表征主义和计算主义的思想渊源以及图灵机的思想渊源和发展史,发现对于表征计算进路背后有两种主导的思想方式和刻画心智特性的思维方式。一种是基于语言理解的用可清晰表达的思想刻画心智的方法,另一种是力图把通过语言所表达的思想形式化的思维方式。这两种思维方式在历史上的不同阶段有不同的表现,并最终因为技术的进步和理论的发展在20世纪上半叶成功的汇合并催生了当代的表征-计算进路。这两种思维方式属于高阶认知,都是人类经过自然演化和社会演化而发展出来的刻画外部和内部事物的种种思维方式中的一种。而这些思维方式都有其认知的基础,所以在认知的表征-计算进路中就存在着这么一种高阶认知上的循环。

表征-计算进路虽然是主流进路,但是受到具身认知等所谓第二代认知的挑战。由瓦雷拉等人提出的具身的生成进路不赞同通过表征和计算的方式主导关于认知的研究。他们认为认知是一种具身的行为,是与知觉-行为的循环密切相关。他们反对那种认为认知是基于主体对外部世界的信息的表征的客观主义方法,也反对那种认为认知就是主体把其自身投射到世界中的那种主观主义的方法,而提出一种兼顾两者的中道。他们通过一个颜色案例的分析,通过论证一般所说的颜色并不是客观世界的性质来证明其观点。但通过分析,我认为具身的生成进路背后是一种不同于表征-计算进路的思维方式。这种思维方式与知觉以及对于自身的感觉密切相关,不同关于那种基于语言的可清晰表达的的思想。同时通过用关于拓扑形状的案例研究反驳其关于颜色的理论,论证其企图通过可清晰表达的方法论证其具身生成思想的案例是无效的。这种进路的循环表现在:一些与知觉相关的认知能力和心智特性以及一些与对于身体本身的感觉相关的思维特性,通过语言概念系统表达出来力图去描述和刻画人的心智与身体之间的关系的这一行为过程,是一种循环。这种不同于表征-计算背后的那种可清晰表达的思维方式深深受到人们日常对于身体性感知的影响。这种思维方式本身是人类的众多思维方式中的一种,其被通过语言等方式表达出来企图刻画人类心智的某类属性,这个过程就是一个循环。

可用语言清晰表述的思维方式是一种与“外界客观事物”的结构紧密相连的思维方式。这类思维方式本身不是固定的和一成不变的,它本身是在发展的。

这类思维方式的典范就是人类的数学概念系统。另外一种思维方式与人类某些主观的特性相关。在认知科学的两种不同进路中表现出的这两种思维方式共同构成了一种思维方式层面的循环现象。这个循环现象兼有语义循环和自然性循环特性,同时也兼有第一人称和第三人称循环特性。这些特性带来的循环问题主要有认知科学中对象语言与元语言混淆的问题和多研究进路并存的问题。对于循环问题分析的意义很大程度上在于可以帮助厘清很多与认知和心智相关的哲学问题。认知科学中的循环是无法一劳永逸的破解的,而是一种随着理论的发展和技术的进步不断的深入的这么一个过程。

 

关键词:认知科学,循环,计算-表征,具身

 

Abstract

The main theme of cognitive science is the human’s mind and intelligence which the characteristics of man as man. And cognitive science itself is an advanced cognitive activity as a human activity. So there is circulation in cognitive science which is between the subject and object of cognition and between cognitive process itself. We can find this circulation from the first-person and third-person which are the subjective and objective perspective. This cycle is a "self" recognition from the first-person point of view. And this cycle is a process of its own understanding of things from the third-person perspective.

The human mind and the brain are the most complex thing in the universe. Cognitive behaviors of human which include from sensory perception to higher-order thinking are also complex. The circulation in the cognitive science which is a complex cognitive activity is a cycle with multiple levels of features. I will analyze the circulation in the higher-order cognition because we have little know about the sensory perception.

Circulation exists in various areas from the circulation of the water to the circulation of more complex genetic information and the paradox in the abstract thinking. We can find two characteristics from these circulations: at least two similar or same things and a diachronic process. There are many methods to classify the circulation. One of them which is fatal for depicting circulation in the cognitive is to classify circulation by whether including reference and semantics.

Representation-Computation approach is mainstream cognitive science research approach. There are two sub-approachs depending on the characterization of the structure of representation.  The one is based on token and the other one is based on connection. We find that there are two different way of thinking that behind the sub-approach rely on analyzing the structure of representation and computation. And we although analyzing the history of computationalism and representationnalism. One of two ways of thinking is describing mind by clearly language and another is formalizing the thought. Those two ways of thinking have different performance in different stages of history. And ultimately those two ways of thinking spawned a successful convergence of contemporary characterization - computing approach because of advances in technology and the development of theory in the 20th century. All those way of thinking are high-level cognition which is the part of the cognition by natural evolution and social evolution. All of them have the basement of cognition. So there is a circulation in the Representation-Computation approach

Representation-Computation approach is challenged with the so-called second generation of cognitive science. The enact approach of embodied cognition which proposed by Varela et al do not agree the approach of researching cognition by representation and computation. They thought that cognition is embodied and related to the loop of perception-action. They oppose the idea that cognition is objectivist approach to characterize the main information of the outside world is based and the idea that knowledge is subject to its own projected onto the world the kind of subjective approach. They proposed an account middle of the two ways. They demonstrated their ideas by analyzing a case of color that the color is not the objective property. My idea is that enactive approach have a different way of thinking which is differ from Representation-Computation approach. This way of thinking is related to perception and sensation which is different from the thought by clearly language. I refute the case of color by studying the case of the shape of topology. And I argue that its attempt to demonstrate their ideas embodied cases generated by the method of expression is clearly invalid. This approach is reflected in a loop: some perceptual and cognitive abilities related to mental characteristics as well as some of the characteristics of the feeling and thinking related to the body itself expressed through language and concepts to describe the system tries to portray the human mind and body the relationship between the behavior of the process is a cycle. This differs from the characterization - the kind of thinking behind the calculation expression clearly deeply affected the daily known for sexy body affect people. This way of thinking itself is in many ways a kind of human thought which is expressed in an attempt to portray the human mind certain attributes through language whose process is a cycle.

The way of thinking that can be depicting by clearly language is relate to the structure of objective world. It is developing in human history. The model of this way is conceptual system of mathematics. Another way of thinking is related to the subjective property. And the circulation in the cognitive science have both property of semantic and natural. And it also has both the property of first person and third person. The problem with this circulation is the confusion of object language and meta language. And another problem is the multidisciplinary approach. The meaning of analyzing circulation in the cognitive science is that it can help clarifying the question of philosophy.

Key Wordscognitive science, circulation, representation-computation, embodied

 

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