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2014-赵 鹰: 中国千人计划之实践与问题研究
  作者:赵鹰    文章来源:作者惠寄    点击数:    更新时间:2014-6-8    
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论文类别:博士论文

论文作者:赵 

指导教师:刘大椿

答辩时间:20145

 

关键词:千人计划;人才竞争;举国体制;对策建议.

自晚清以降,“西学东渐”开启了中国科技现代化的征程。但在世界科技革命的进程中,中国始终处于跟随状态。建国以来,中国科技的建制化发展使其从跟随状态向前发展,经由消化吸收再创新的路径,逐渐走向自主创新的道路。进入21世纪以来,中国在经济上已仅次于美国,但从科技前沿的领先程度来说,中国与美国的差距仍然较大,与英法德等传统科技强国之间也存在着不同程度的差距。同时,围绕生命科学展开的科技革命趋势逐渐明朗(也有学者称之为第六次科技革命),如何在科技发展中超越发达国家,把握住世界科技中心的转移趋势,进而引领世界科技发展,成为中国科技战略中的重要抉择问题。

在这样的关键时刻,伴随着中国创新型国家建设的提出,人才强国上升为国家战略,人才资源被视为第一资源,并将国内人才培养和海外人才的引进作为人力资源开发的两翼,以满足科技发展所需的各类人才。其中,中国2008年年底推出了旨在吸引海外高层次人才的千人计划。千人计划的推出,既要解决中国自身历史形成的高层次人才短缺的问题,也要应对发达国家的人才竞争,如吸引大量滞留美国的中国留学人员,包括取得较大科研成绩的高层次人才;同时,还要通过计划的实施,促进国家创新体系的加快形成,在重大科技专项方面取得突破,为中国构筑科技高地做出贡献;以及促进国内科研环境、创新创业环境等方面起到应有的作用等。

从千人计划的实施情况来看,5年之内,在引进人数上已超额完成任务,是原计划的两倍;但在人才的质量上,只能说引进一定数量的海外高层次人才,与计划的初衷有一定的差距,即引进的全部人才并没有达到计划之初所提出的要求。在人才引进中,省区市之间,高校、科研院所、央企与金融机构、产业园区之间都出现了较大的差距,存在着较为明显的“马太效应”,体现出边疆省区及其地域内的上述机构单位在人才引进中的尴尬地位。在千人计划的制定与实施中,引发了诸多问题。从科学技术与社会(STS)的角度看,以举国体制为支撑的千人计划,在制定时缺乏一定的合理性,在实施中规范性不足,体现出计划缺乏社会机制,进而导致了形式化、行政化、重评选、轻实施等体制机制问题,以及引发了较大的海归和本土人才之间的矛盾等。

因此,本文的研究以问题意识作为基点,站在建设性的立场,展开了千人计划相关问题的研究,包括千人计划制定时的国内外背景、实施基本情况,并有针对性地进行调研分析,对相关问题进行了较为深入的思考,最终提出了对策性的建议。

 

 

 

导论

0.1 研究对象

0.2 研究意义

0.2.1 中国千人计划应对的两个问题

0.2.2 研究中国千人计划的必要性 

0.3 相关文献

0.3.1 中国人才竞争战略及其研究 

0.3.2 中国千人计划相关研究文献

0.4 研究框架

1  中国千人计划之缘由与历史背景   

1.1 中国面临严峻的人才形势 

1.1.1 国内高端人才缺失严重

1.1.2 国际高端人才竞争加剧

1.2 人才强国战略的迫切需求

1.2.1 从科教兴国到人才强国

1.2.2 从人才规划到人才竞争

1.3 国外科技人才竞争的态势

1.3.1 美国力保人才大国地位

1.3.2 英法德努力维持传统优势

1.3.3 日本增强人才竞争吸引力

2  中国千人计划之实施

2.1 千人计划的正式提出与实施

2.1.1 正式提出的台前幕后

2.1.2 千人计划之实施流程

2.2 千人计划实施总体成效

2.2.1 实施项目调整较多

2.2.2 总体成效不如预期

2.3 北上广与若干省区实施概况

2.3.1 北京引才力度较大

2.3.2 若干省区多有悬殊

3  中国千人计划之成效分析

3.1 985高校

3.1.1 师资排序占重要地位   

3.1.2 入选者多为学术中坚   

3.2 科研院所

3.2.1 中科院引才政策措施   

3.2.2 中科院人才引进概况   

3.3 产业园区

3.3.1 政策措施注重创业扶持

3.3.2 引才创业有所成效

4  中国千人计划之问题思考与对策建议

4.1 建国50年科技人才政策的影响

4.1.1 建国30年政治影响过大

4.1.2 20年高端人才回流微弱  

4.2 千人计划的机制性缺失   

4.2.1 制定缺乏规范性   

4.2.2 实施严肃性不足

4.3 举国体制下中国千人计划的若干问题   

4.3.1 遴选机制形式主义、行政化 

4.3.2 重评审、轻实施、无检测   

4.3.3 缺乏退出机制 

4.3.4 海归与本土人才矛盾凸显   

4.3.5 无社会机制   

4.4 对策建议

参考文献

后记   

 

Abstract

Since in the late Qing Dynasty, "Western learning spreading to the East" start the process of modernization of science and technology in China. But in the world science and technology revolution, China is always in the state of follow. Since the founding of the people's Republic, by the institutionalization of the development of science and technology, the science and technology of China forward from the following state, through the digestive absorption path to innovation, gradually moving toward the road of independent innovation. Enter in twenty-first Century, China in the economy has been second only to USA, but from the leading level of science and technology, Chinese and USA still larger gap; Between Chinese and Britain and France and Germany these traditional technology powers, there are different degrees of difference. At the same time, the revolution of science and technology trend around the life sciences expanded gradually clear (some scholars called the sixth revolution of science and Technology), how to surpass the developed countries in science and technology development, transfer trend grasp of world technology centre, which leads the world in science and technology development, become an important choice problem for China science and technology strategy.

At this critical juncture, accompanied by the proposed construction of Chinese innovation oriented country, talent rises for national strategy, talent resource is regarded as the first resource, and the personnel training and the introduction of overseas talents at home as the wings of human resource development, in order to meet all kinds of talents needed in the development of science and technology. The end of 2008, Chinese launched The Recruitment Program of Global Experts to attract overseas high-level talents. It not only to solve the high level talents China its historical formation of the shortage,but also to deal with the developed countries of the talent competition, attract a large number of stranded American China students, including high level talents have made great achievements in research; at the same time, but also through the plan the implementation of the national innovation system, accelerating the formation, a breakthrough in the major science and technology projects, contribute to the China building technology heights; and the promotion of entrepreneurial environment research environment, innovation in China has played its due role.

From the implementation of The Recruitment Program of Global Experts, has exceeded the number of tasks in the introduction in 5 years, is two times the original plan; but in the quality of talent, can only say that the introduction of high-level overseas talents to a certain amount, but with the idea that there is a certain gap, namely all the talent introduction and no to plan at the beginning of the request. In the talent introduction, provinces and municipalities, universities, research institutes, enterprises and financial institutions, industrial park between appear larger gap, with obvious "Matthew effect", reflects the frontier provinces and regions within the organization in the awkward position in talents introduction. There a lot of problems in the formulation and implementation of The Recruitment Program of Global Experts. From the science and technology and Society (STS) point of view, the whole nation system as the support of The Recruitment Program of Global Experts, lack of rationality in the formulation, specification is insufficient in the implementation of the plan, reflect the lack of social mechanism, which leads to the problem of formal, administration, re selection, light implementation mechanism, and the contradiction between large returnees and local talent etc..

Therefore, this study take the question consciousness as the basis, stand in the constructive stance, launched a research on related problems of The Recruitment Program of Global Experts, including formulation background at home and abroad, the implementation of the basic situation, and targeted research and analysis, has carried on a more thorough ponder on related issues, and finally puts forward some countermeasure suggestions.

 

Keywords: thousand person plan; talent competition; the whole nation system; Countermeasures

 


 

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