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2013-孙涛:中国近现代政治社会变革与生态环境演化
  作者:孙涛    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2013-9-11    
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论文类别:博士论文

论文作者:孙涛

指导教师:王鸿生

答辩时间:2013-05-11

 

 

摘 要

晚清以来,中国近现代的政治社会发生了深刻的历史巨变,中国的生态环境也开始发生了不同于传统社会的演化。本文从政治社会变革的视角审视近现代以来中国的生态环境演化,并以影响深远的政治社会变革为历史坐标,根据中国近现代政治社会发展的特点,把研究内容划分为晚清和民国时期、建国后30年间和改革开放以来等三个时期,分别来具体地研讨每个时期政治社会变革对生态环境的影响。从方法论的角度,本文将涉猎政治学、社会学、经济学、生态学、环境科学以及科学技术哲学等学科。全文力图通过对特定历史阶段内相关社会发展背景、政治社会变革状况、生态环境演化机制以及影响生态环境演进的理性和非理性因素等的分析,揭示出中国近现代以来政治社会变革与生态环境演化之间的动态互动规律。

本文共分为四章:

第一章主要探讨晚清和民国时期中国激荡的政治社会变革与生态环境的变化。文章从“传统农耕文明社会”的历史背景出发,探讨传统农耕文明社会的基本特征、中国近现代的工业发展和中国近现代激荡的政治社会变革等三个方面的内容。作者认为,以“精耕细作”和“多元交汇”为主要特点的中国古代传统农耕文明,结合中国古代“天人合一”的传统思想文化精华,不但创造了灿烂辉煌的物质成果,而且表现出生态环境保护的强大的生命力。但在“内忧外患”的时代背景下,中国近现代的政治社会变革激荡,晚清和民国时期工业化发展迅速,外国列强入侵和战争灾难频繁发生。这一时期的中国表现出“各类自然灾害频发”、“资源开发、利用水平低下”、“人为破坏严重”等特征。

具体而言,晚清和民国时期在东西方文明的历史交汇与碰撞的大背景下,中国政局激烈动荡,缺乏政治权威,加之以自然经济体系下,社会处于无序自发的发展状态。在洋务运动“求强、求富”和晚清政府“自上而下”的维新变法改革运动的影响下,西方近代科技手段和工业化的生产方式被积极引入,近代中国工业发展迅速,使得自然生态环境发生逐步改变,局部地区的破坏较为严重。在一定意义上,外国列强对中国的侵略和掠夺以及战争灾难的频繁发生可以被看成是破坏生态环境的主要原因。然而,晚清和民国时期,在国破民穷的历史关头,人们并不会奢谈生态环境保护,也没有生态环境保护方面的意识,更不会真正考虑到生态环境保护的长远利益。因此,从本质上说,这一时期如果有环境保护的行为,那也只能说是出于维持生存的本能。比如,抗战时期,在面临资源和环境日益破坏时,国统区政府和陕甘宁边区政府就曾采取过多种措施,以便协调经济建设、资源利用与环境保护之间的关系,取得了较好的社会效果。

第二章主要探究新中国成立后30年间大规模的政治社会运动与生态环境的破坏。这一时期中国社会发展经历了深刻的制度变革,但社会发展基础薄弱,政治社会变革理想色彩浓厚。建国后经过7年左右时间的建设,社会主义制度在中国被迅速地建立起来,并逐步建立了社会主义公有制和高度集中的计划经济体制。然而,革命胜利的历史经验和共产主义的理想带来了过分的自信,这导致了盲目的、大规模的、运动战式的政治社会变革。在计划经济体制条件下,政治权威被无限放大,运动战式的开发建设严重破坏生态环境。在“意识形态狂热”的时代,从1958年开始,浩浩荡荡的“大跃进”、人民公社化运动和“文化大革命”相继展开。正如邓小平所言,“完全违背客观实际情况,头脑发热,想超高速发展”,给中国的生态环境带来极大的灾难。“我们花了三年时间,纠正错误,才使情况又好起来。”然而,“左”的指导思想并没有根除,“‘文化大革命’十年浩劫,中国吃了苦头”,整整耽误了我们十年时间。总体而言,新中国成立后30年间的生态环境整体状况持续恶化,以生态破坏为主,局部地区环境污染严重。

面对凸显的生态环境灾难,中国生态环境保护事业艰难起步,但是却有其良好的思想基础,这主要体现在中央领导集体对环境保护问题的重视,并受世界环境与发展大会的积极推动。之所以说是起步艰难,主要是因为建国初期急于从多年战争留下的废墟中恢复国民经济建设,加之以对环境问题缺乏足够的认识等。特别是在极“左”和僵化思想的影响下,生态环境问题常被看成是资本主义的特有产物,认为社会主义不存在环境污染问题,因而采取了一种隔岸观火,自我陶醉的消极态度。结果丧失了良好的环境治理时机,铸成了积重难返的环境污染的被动局面。晚认识、快起步的环保思想以及初期的环保政策与措施的制度性保障有力地延缓了生态环境持续恶化的总体现状。

这一时期,中国社会在“政治理想”变革下实现了“双重剥夺”,即实现了对地主的土地剥夺和对资本家的资本剥夺,并且由于“意识形态狂热”而出现了对生态环境的大肆破坏和自然资源大肆剥夺的“大跃进”、“人民公社化运动”和“文化大革命”,使原本脆弱的生态环境再一次面临深重的灾难。

第三章重点探讨改革开放以来巨大的政治社会变革与生态环境的危机。1978年党的十一届三中全会实现了当代中国伟大的历史转折,党中央做出了“把全党工作重点转移到社会主义现代化建设上来”的战略决策,实施了改革开放的政策,中国社会经历了前所未有的、广泛而深刻的政治社会变革。家庭联产承包责任制的实行,全方位多层次宽领域对外开放态势的初步形成,多种所有制共同发展经济格局初步形成,社会主义市场经济体制的逐步确立以及思想文化领域的巨大变化,鲜明地体现出这一时期的时代特色。改革开放以来,迅猛发展的工业化、日益加快的城市化、日趋繁荣的市场化和更加开放的全球化的“四化”建设给尚未恢复的生态环境问题带来严重的影响。然而,令人欣慰的是,随着执政党意识形态中理性程度的提升和科学技术的进步,中国的生态环境建设走过了一条“破”“建”并存的曲折之路。领导集体智慧的提升和生态文明理念的确立、积极的国际环境交流和对可持续发展理念的认同、国家环保机构的设置、环境保护政策的出台和相关法律的制定等因素的共同作用,是中国的生态环境建设走向健康、良好的发展道路的关键。

第四章从政治文明与生态文明的同步构建的视角出发探究中国近现代政治社会变革与生态环境演化,这实际上也是对前文研究的一个总结和理论提升。

近代以来,政治社会变革激荡,生态环境演化剧烈。晚清和民国时期,政权几度更迭,政府缺少必要的政治权威,在自然经济体制仍然占主导地位的情况下,人类对生态环境的破坏还是自发的行为造成的。但是,近代工业的发展、外国列强的掠夺和战争灾难的频繁发生等则对生态环境造成一定程度的改变,局部地区呈现出灾难性的破坏,难以恢复。新中国成立后30年间,在意识形态狂热和过分自信的政治社会理想的主导下,计划经济体制中的大规模的政治社会运动使生态环境遭受了大面积严重破坏。改革开放以来,社会政治发展相对平稳,所有制结构没有发生根本性的改变。然而,一切以经济建设为中心,一切以GDP总量为标准的全面追求经济效益的发展模式使生态环境的破坏也达到了前所未有的程度。生态环境保护中的“市场失灵”和“政府失灵”现象严重凸显。政府在促进经济社会发展和加强生态环境建设方面面临着双重压力。概而言之,政治问题、经济问题和环境问题事实上是紧密联系在一起的,是一个整体的问题。为了保护生态环境,必须改变经济发展的模式,政治文明建设也需要亟待提高。中国未来应该依托政治文明的构建加强生态环境的改善,政治文明与生态文明的同步构建的需求日益彰显。

总之,中国近现代政治社会变革与生态环境演化的历史表明,中国式的“公地悲剧”之殇、中国环境治理中的“囚徒困境”之厄正是政治文明与生态文明建设相背离的产物。因此,中国生态环境的保护和改善首先应该提高执政党“意识形态”对“生态文明”的认同度,切实推行领导干部环境保护一票否决制,建立更加开放的环境保护监督平台,加强环境保护立法和执法能力,注重环境保护中的行政力量和司法力量的协调,最大限度地发挥政府管理生态环境的能力和全社会对环境保护工作的关注和监督,以实现政治文明和生态文明的同步发展和良性互动。

 

关键词:政治社会变革;生态环境演化;政治文明;生态文明

 

 

目录

  ....................................................................... 1

0.1 选题的背景和依据....................................................... 1

0.2 选题的意义............................................................. 5

0.3 选题相关研究成果及评价................................................. 7

0.4 研究范围和主题........................................................ 11

0.5 研究方法.............................................................. 12

0.6研究重点、难点和主要创新点............................................. 14

第1章 晚清和民国时期中国激荡的政治社会变革与生态环境的变化(1861—1949年). 16

1.1 传统农耕文明基础上的政治社会变革...................................... 16

1.1.1 传统农耕文明社会的基本特征........................................ 16

1.1.2 中国近现代的工业发展.............................................. 19

1.1.3 中国近现代激荡的政治社会变革...................................... 21

1.2 生态环境整体特征...................................................... 26

1.2.1 各类自然灾害频发.................................................. 26

1.2.2 资源开发、利用水平低下............................................ 32

1.2.3 人为破坏严重...................................................... 34

1.3 生态环境破坏的原因分析................................................ 37

1.3.1 近代工业发展的严重破坏............................................ 37

1.3.2 外国列强的疯狂掠夺................................................ 38

1.3.3 战争灾难的频繁发生................................................ 44

1.4 政治乱局下的自发环保之路.............................................. 50

1.4.1 加强林业资源保护.................................................. 50

1.4.2 改进垦荒种植技术.................................................. 51

1.4.3 设立环境保护管理机构.............................................. 52

1.4.4 制定环境保护法律规范.............................................. 53

1.4.5 加强环境保护宣传.................................................. 53

1.5 激荡的政治社会变革下的生态环境之影响.................................. 54

第2章 新中国成立后30年间大规模的政治社会运动与生态环境的破坏(1949—1978年) 57

2.1 深刻的变革与薄弱的基础................................................ 57

2.1.1 社会制度的深刻变革................................................ 57

2.1.2 薄弱的社会发展基础................................................ 62

2.1.3 “意识形态狂热”的时代............................................ 72

2.2 新中国成立后30年间生态环境的严重破坏................................. 91

2.2.1 草原植被的破坏.................................................... 91

2.2.2 森林生态的破坏.................................................... 92

2.2.3 湿地面积的锐减.................................................... 93

2.2.4 水污染现象严重.................................................... 94

2.2.5 空气质量日益恶化.................................................. 95

2.3 生态环境保护事业的艰难起步............................................ 96

2.3.1 晚认识、快起步的环保思想.......................................... 96

2.3.2 初期的环保政策与措施............................................. 100

2.3.3 认识不统一、效果不明显........................................... 104

2.4 “政治理想”变革下的生态环境灾难..................................... 105

第3章改革开放以来巨大的政治社会变革与生态环境的危机

(1978—现今)............................................................. 107

3.1 中国政治社会前所未有的新变革......................................... 108

3.1.1 家庭联产承包责任制的伟大变革..................................... 108

3.1.2 对外开放格局的初步形成........................................... 110

3.1.3 多种所有制共同发展制度的日渐完善................................. 113

3.1.4 社会主义市场经济体制的逐步确立................................... 115

3.1.5 思想文化领域的巨大变化........................................... 116

3.2 中国的“四化”建设对生态环境的影响................................... 117

3.2.1 迅猛发展的工业化................................................. 117

3.2.2 日益加快的城市化................................................. 126

3.2.3 日趋繁荣的市场化................................................. 135

3.2.4 更加开放的全球化................................................. 139

3.3 生态环境“破”、“建”并存的时代..................................... 144

3.3.1 生态环境破坏的非理性因素......................................... 145

3.3.2 生态环境建设的理性因素........................................... 148

3.4 “四化”建设中的坎坷环保之路......................................... 157

第4章 中国近现代政治社会变革与生态环境演化的理论思考...................... 161

4.1 政治文明与生态文明的同步构建......................................... 161

4.2 中国式公地悲剧之殇................................................... 165

4.2.1 中国式公地悲剧的含义............................................. 165

4.2.2 中国式公地悲剧的成因............................................. 166

4.2.3 破解中国式公地悲剧之道........................................... 169

4.3 中国环境治理中的囚徒困境............................................. 170

4.3.1 中国式的囚徒困境的产生........................................... 170

4.3.2 中国式囚徒困境的根源............................................. 171

4.3.3 囚徒困境下的环境危机............................................. 174

4.3.4 超越中国式囚徒困境之术........................................... 176

4.4 中国政府间环境问题上的博弈........................................... 177

4.4.1 中国政府在环境保护中的角色....................................... 177

4.4.2 政府介入环境保护的理论依据....................................... 178

4.4.3 中国政府间环境问题上的博弈....................................... 180

4.4.4 规避中国政府间环境问题博弈之思................................... 183

参考文献................................................................... 188

致 谢...................................................................... 200

 

Abstract

Since the late Qing Dynasty, profound historical changes have taken place in politics and society in modern times in China, and the evolution of the ecological environment different from traditional society has also begun to occur. From the perspective of political and social changes, the paper scans the evolution of the ecological environment in modern times in China, with profound historical coordinates of the political and social revolution, based on the characteristics of Chinese modern political and social development, the research content is divided into three periods to respectively discuss the influences of political and social evolution on the environment in different periods. The three periods are the period of the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, in 30 years since the founding of New China, the period since reform and opening. From the perspective of methodology, this paper will study Politics, sociology, economics, ecology, environment science, philosophy of science and technology, and other disciplines. The paper tries to reveal the dynamic interaction law between the ecological environment and the political and social changes, by analyzing the relevant social background, political and social changes, the conditions of ecological environment, and the rational and irrational factors affecting she political and social changes.

This paper is divided into four chapters:

The first chapter mainly discusses the stirring political and social changes in the period of late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of Chian changes the ecological environment. From the historical background of the traditional farming civilized society, the paper discusses the basic characteristics of the traditional farming civilization,modern industrial development in China, and stirring political and social changes in modern times in China. The author believes that the traditional farming civilized society in China, charactered by "intensive cultivation" and "diverse intersection", combined with the traditional not only creates the brilliant material achievements, but also shows strong vitality of ecological environmental protection. But in the context of "malaise" era, industrialization has been developing rapidly during, China's modern political and social changes are stirring, and during the period of late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China the development of industrialization was rapid, foreign powers' invasion began and war disasters occurred frequently. In this period, China showed the characteristics of "all kinds of frequent natural disasters", "resource exploitation in low level" and "serious man-made destruction".

Specifically, during the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China and in the context of the historical intersection and collision between the Eastern and Western civilizations, China's political tumulted and lacked political authority, the social development status was in a disorderly spontaneous combined with the natural economy. In the background of the pursuit of "strength and wealth" in Westernization Movement and the reform movement of the late Qing government's" top-down "Reformation Movement, modern Western scientific and technological means and industrialized production methods were actively brought in, which made modern Chinese industry developed rapidly, making natural ecological environment changed gradually and the damage in some areas were more serious. In a certain sense, the foreign powers' aggression and plunder in China and the frequent tragedies of war can be seen as the main reason for the destruction of the ecological environment. However, during the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, the people were poor and the country was broken, so people did not just talk about the ecological and environmental protection, and there was no awareness of the ecological and environmental protection, and people did even not really take the long-term interests of the protection of the ecological environment into account. Therefore, in essence, if there were environmental behaviors, that could only be said for maintaining the survival instinct in this period. For example, during the war, when facing resources and increasing environmental destruction, the NUC District Government and the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region Government had taken various measures in order to coordinate the relationship between economic construction, resource utilization and environmental protection, and achieved good social effects.

The second chapter mainly explores the large-scale political and social movements in the 30 years after the founding of New China and  the destruction of the ecological environment. During this period, the development of Chinese society underwent profound institutional changes, and the social development foundation was weak, political and social changes had a strong ideal. Construction of about seven years after the founding of New China, the socialist system in China was quickly established, and China gradually established socialist public ownership and a highly centralized planned economic system. However, the historical experience of the victory of the revolution and the ideals of communism brought too much self-confidence, which leads to the blind, large-scale and warfare political social changes. In the conditions of the planned economic system, political authority was hugely magnified, and the development and construction of the warfare seriously damaged the ecological environment. In the the ideological fanaticism era, from 1958, the mighty "Great Leap Forward" ,the People's Commune Movement and the "Great Cultural Revolution" started in succession. As Deng Xiaoping said, "completely contrary to the objective reality, hot-headed, people want ultra-high-speed development, which brought great disaster to the ecological environment in China. "It took us three years to correct the error before the sound up." However, the guiding ideology of the "left" did not eradicate, the 'Great Cultural Revolution' in ten years made the Chinese people eat suffered a lot", which delayed China foe ten years. Overall, in 30 years after the founding of New China, the overall state of the ecological environment continued deterioration, which mainly damaged ecology and in the local area environmental pollution was serious.

Facing prominent ecological disasters, the ecological and environmental protection started difficultly, but there was good ideological foundation, which is mainly reflected in the emphasis of the central collective leadership on environmental protection issues, and which was actively promoted by the World Environment and Development Conference. The reason why it had a tough start is mainly that in the early days of New China, our country was eager to build national economic from the ruins left by years of war, combined with the lack of understanding of environmental issues. Especially under the influence of "leftist" and rigid thinking, ecological and environmental problems were often seen as a unique product of capitalism and socialism did not exist the problem of environmental pollution, thus taking a standing on the sidelines, the negative attitude of narcissism, leading to the loss of good environmental governance opportunity to cast a diehard environmental pollution passive situation. Thinking of environmental protection of late awareness and fast start as well as the institutional safeguards of the initial environmental policies and measures effectively delayed the continued deterioration of the ecological environment overall.

During this period, Chinese society in the changes of the political ideals realized the "double deprivation", namely deprivations of the land of the landlords and capitalists capital, and had "Great Leap Forward", the people's commune movement "and the" Cultural Revolution" due to ideological fanaticism which ruthlessly destructed the ecological environment and wantonly deprived the natural resources, which made the fragile ecological environment once again face a grave disaster.

The third chapter focuses on the huge political and social changes leading to the crisis of the ecological environment since the reform and opening up. In 1978, the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the party achieved a great historical turning in contemporary China, and the CPC Central Committee made a strategic decision "by shifting our focus to socialist modernization" and brought the policy of reform and opening up into force, so Chinese society has undergone unprecedented, extensive and profound political and social changes. Implementation of the household contract responsibility system, the initial formation of the full range, multi-level and wide-ranging opening up momentum, the initial formation of the economic development pattern of the diverse forms of ownership, the gradual establishment of the socialist market economic system, and the great changes of the ideological and cultural clearly reflect the characteristics of the times in this period. Since the reform and opening up, the construction of the "four modernizations", including the rapid development of industrialization, an increasingly accelerated urbanization, increasingly prosperous marketization and more widely open globalization, has a great effect on the ecological and environmental problems yet resuming. However, it is gratifying that with the upgrading of the rational degree of the ruling party ideology and scientific and technological progress, China's ecological environment construction has gone through a twists turns of coexistence of "breaking" and "building ". The enhancement of leadership collective wisdom and the establishment of the concept of ecological civilization, the favorable international environment exchanges and the recognition of the concept of sustainable development, the setting of the national environmental agency, the introduction of environmental protection policies and the formulation of related laws and other factors together, are the key to ecological environment construction going on a health, good development road.

Since Modern Times, political and social changes have been agitated, and the evolutions of the ecological environment have been dramatic. During the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, regime changed a lot, and the government lacked the necessary political authority, in the case of natural economic system still dominant, the damages to the ecology caused by the behaviors of human were spontaneous. However, the development of modern industry, to a certain extent, foreign powers' plunder and disasters of war occurring frequently led to the ecological environment changes, some areas showing catastrophic damages, which was difficult to restore. In 30 years after the founding of New China, in the dominance of political and social ideals of ideological fanaticism and overconfidence, large-scale political and social changes in the planned economic system made the ecological environment suffered from serious destruction in large areas. The social and political development is relatively stable since the reform and opening up, the ownership structure is not undergoing a fundamental changes. However, the comprehensive pursue economic development mode taking economic construction as the center and taking the total GDP for standard make an unprecedented destruction of the ecological environment. The "market failure" and "government failure" in the protection of the ecological environment seriously highlight. The government are facing the dual pressures between promoting economic and social development and improving the ecological environment construction. To sum up, political issues, economic issues and environmental issues are in fact closely linked together, which is a problem overall. In order to protect the ecological environment, we must change the mode of economic development, and political civilization also needs to be improved. In the future, China should rely on the construction of political civilization to improve the ecological environment, and the growing demand of the synchronization building in the field of political civilization and ecological civilization is being highlighted increasingly.

In short, the history of modern Chinese political and social changes and ecological environment evolution show that China's "tragedy of the commons" and "prisoner's dilemma" in China's environmental governance is the result of the political civilization and ecological civilization construction deviating. Therefore, in the aspect of protecting and improving the ecological environment, we should first raise the degree of recognition for "ecological civilization" of the ruling party's "ideology", implement the institution of the leadership cadres environmental protection one card ruling, establish a more widely open platform for environmental protection supervision, strengthen environmental protection legislative and enforcement capabilities, focusing on the coordination of the executive power and judicial power in environmental protection, maximize the ability of the government managing ecological environment and the whole society concerning the environmental protection work and supervision, and achieve synchronous development and positive interaction of political civilization and ecological civilization.

 

Keywordspolitical and social changes; ecological environment evolution; political civilization; ecological civilization

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