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2017- 敬狄:奥特加技术哲学思想解析
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追求人类美好生活的技术——奥特加·加塞特技术哲学思想解析

 

题目:追求人类美好生活的技术——奥特加·加塞特技术哲学思想解析

作者:敬狄

指导老师:王伯鲁

答辩时间:2017516

 

 

目 录

引言

第一章 生平及其哲学思想

1.1 生平与思想特征

1.1.1 生平

1.1.2 思想的时代与文化特征

1.2 哲学思想概貌

1.2.1 对新康德主义的继承和超越

1.2.2 现象学和视角主义的方法

1.2.3 人类生活与历史的观点

1.2.4 实用主义和存在主义的哲学立场

1.2.5 生活哲学与技术哲学的成就

第二章 技术哲学的历史定位

2.1 人文主义技术哲学在现代性的反思中兴起

2.1.1 理解技术哲学的现代性理论范式

2.1.2 技术哲学的历史性缺席

2.1.3 人文主义技术哲学的兴起

2.2 通过技术追问人是什么

2.2.1 超越技术的人类起源神话

2.2.2 哲学人类学思考技术的第三条路径

2.3 通过技术追问人的自由

2.3.1 自由是人文主义技术哲学反思的重要主题

2.3.2 基于自立自由观念的乐观技术论

第三章 展现人类意志的技术

3.1 技术起源于人的独特需求与存在

3.1.1 人与自然的独特互动

3.1.2 人在自然中的独特存在

3.1.3 技术起源于人“活得好”的需求

3.1.4 对技术起源问题的争论

3.2 人在技术历史中创造自身

3.2.1技术史的多样性根源于人想要“活得好”的渴望

3.2.2 “我们的时代”的精神与危机

3.2.3 技术进步的信念与危机

3.3 展现人类“活得好”的意志的技术

3.3.1 “活得好”的渴望作为技术行为的动力和目的

3.3.2 实现“活得好”渴望的技术行为特征

第四章 “制作”人类生活的技术

4.1 人类生活作为技术哲学的出发点

4.1.1 人类生活是最基本的现实

4.1.2思考人类生活的技术人类学

4.2 “制作”人类生活的技术活动

4.2.1 在技术史中“制作”人类生活的三个阶段

4.2.2 作为“制作”活动的技术

4.2.3人类生活伴随着技术而生

第五章 技术是人之为人善的本质的实践活动

5.1 对技术与人类生活“应然”关系的阐述

5.1.1 人、技术与“活得好”的渴望的一致性

5.1.2 “制作”生活的技术实践是通达美好生活的德性实践

5.2 技术时代实现美好生活的可能性途径

5.2.1 技术时代大众反叛的危机

5.2.2 通过教育在技术时代实现美好生活的途径

第六章 哲学人类学视域下技术价值论的超越与局限

6.1 解释技术的哲学人类学路径

6.1.1 技术哲学分析现代技术的三条路径

6.1.2 哲学人类学视域下技术与人类生活关系的非决定论

6.1.3 哲学人类学路径的意义与局限

6.2 追求美好生活的技术价值论

6.2.1对技术实践伦理价值的阐释

6.2.2技术实践伦理价值论的意义

6.2.3技术实践伦理价值论的局限

结语

参考文献

后记

附录:奥特加生平与著作年表

 

摘 要

奥特加•加塞特是20世纪西语世界最伟大的哲学家之一,在人文主义技术哲学史上占有重要地位。为了弥补国内学术界对奥特加技术哲学思想研究方面的不足,探寻一种新的审视技术现象的视角和分析技术问题的范式,本文对奥特加的技术哲学思想进行了系统梳理和解读。在此基础上,还在哲学人类学视角下,给予他所构建的追求美好生活的技术哲学理论以合理的评价。

作为人文主义技术哲学家的典型代表,奥特加真正关心的并非现代技术的本质或特征问题,他分析现代技术的最终目的是要追寻技术时代人的意义以及人在自然、社会和历史中的位置。因此,他考察技术实践的重点,不是作为物质生产劳动的技术实践,而是展现人们“活得好”的意志的技术实践;在历史中被人们信念决定的技术实践,以及与人之为人善的本质、与人类美好生活理想相一致的技术实践。奥特加技术哲学真正的独特之处在于,他从对人与技术“实然”关系的哲学人类学分析,走向了对技术与人类美好生活“应然”关系的探讨。通过对技术与人类美好生活“应然”关系的追问,他的技术哲学才能超越传统人文主义技术哲学关于现代技术的乌托邦或敌托邦的结论,使对人、技术与人类生活关系的纯粹理论反思,能够有助于人们当下的生活实践以及追求未来的美好生活。

从奥特加技术哲学体系的内部结构来看,首先,他从哲学人类学的视角出发,认为人之为人的独特性就在于人总是想要“活得好”,即通过技术行为改变环境,以适应人类追求美好生活的需求。按照奥特加的观点,“活得好”的渴望不仅是人类从事技术活动的根本动力,同时也是他从对人与技术“实然”关系的哲学人类学分析,过渡到对技术与人类美好生活“应然”关系探讨的转折点。其次,从技术价值论的角度看,奥特加关于“制作”人类生活的技术活动是实现美好生活的德性实践的结论,必须通过哲学人类学的分析,才能找到基于人之为人本质特征的普遍依据,并由此超越技术与人类生活关系的 “手段-目的”论解释,摆脱技术价值的多元主义和主观主义困境。在此基础上,奥特加还对技术时代实现美好生活的可能性途径进行进一步探索,在一定程度上弥补了以往技术价值论在实践层面的欠缺。

本文分为四个部分,包括第一章对奥特加生平和哲思源流的简单介绍;第二章在现代性的框架中明确奥特加技术哲学的历史定位;第三、四、五章以人与技术的关系、技术与人类生活的关系为线索,系统解析了奥特加的技术哲学思想;第六章对奥特加技术哲学思想的意义和局限性进行了评价和反思。

引言部分说明了国内外对奥特加技术哲学思想研究的基本现状,文章的选题意义、整体思路与篇章结构。

第一章简要介绍了奥特加的生平及其哲学思想源流。奥特加的哲学思想是特殊的历史时期与浓郁的伊比利亚文化交锋的产物,只有认识奥特加生活的时代背景和他哲学思想的理论特色,才能够更好地理解他的技术哲学思想。

第二章在现代性的框架中明确了奥特加技术哲学的历史定位。人是什么和人的自由问题,既是现代性的根本问题,同时也是奥特加技术哲学回应的根本问题,因而有必要在整个现代性理论的框架中来理解奥特加的技术哲学思想。具体来说,奥特加从哲学人类学的视角出发,论述了人类超越技术的起源神话,把“人是什么”这个现代性理论的根本问题转化为“人做什么”问题,巧妙地超越了哲学人类学传统的二元争论。在奥特加关于人的自由是自立且面向自身的自由的论证中,我们找到了他的技术乐观主义思想萌芽的理论根源。

第三、四、五章是以人、技术与人类生活的关系为主线,对奥特加技术哲学理论的全面解析。第三章主要论述了奥特加关于展现人类“活得好”的意志的技术实践活动的观点。他从对人与自然互动中的技术实践的分析出发,得到了技术产生并服务于人想要“活得好”的需求。对人类来说,看似多余但却唯一必要的想要“活得好”的渴望,决定了技术在人类历史中演变的基本面貌。在奥特加看来,由人们信念变化决定的技术史,同时也是人在技术实践中创造自身和人类生活的历史;立足当下,“我们的时代”的精神与对技术进步的信念,使得人性与人类生活陷入危机。

第四章是对奥特加关于“制作”人类生活的技术实践思想的论述。在奥特加的哲学视野中,人类生活就是我的生活,我的生活是其全部哲学的新实在,同时也是其技术哲学的出发点和最终目的。通过历史学的方法,奥特加划分出了人“制作”自身生活的三个历史阶段,辨析了“制作”人类生活的技术活动中的想象、规划和实施行为,并指出现代技术活动对人的过度“去自然化”的影响。关于人如何通过技术实践“制作”人类生活,奥特加还提出了三个具有归纳性的命题。

第五章解析了奥特加关于技术是人之为人善的本质的实践活动的观点。该观点超越了对现代技术与人类生活“是什么”关系的追问,从两者之间“应该是什么”关系出发,面向人类未来生活而得出的积极行动的结论。奥特加基于人、技术与“活得好”的渴望的一致性理论,超越了技术与人类生活的“手段-目的”论,提出“制作”生活的技术实践是通达美好生活的德性实践观点。依据大众批判理论中精英与大众在社会历史中互动的基本模式,奥特加提出了他的德性精英的政治理想,在技术时代实行技术治理的现实性,以及通过教育实现美好生活理想的可能性。

第六章是对奥特加技术价值论意义与局限性的评价和反思。奥特加技术哲学的核心主要由分析技术的哲学人类学和在技术时代追求人类美好生活的价值论构成,两者在其技术哲学的体系中互为基础、相互依存。从技术哲学的历史上看,无论是分析技术的哲学人类学路径,还是偏重把技术作为构建人类生活价值的伦理实践观点,奥特加的技术哲学思想在20世纪的人文主义技术哲学史上都具有一定的独特性;同时,也与当前技术哲学前沿的发展方向相契合,能够为大科学时代和信息时代的技术价值反思提供新的思路。此外,与同时代的人文主义技术哲学家类似,奥特加对技术问题的诸多思考,始终无法摆脱时代的束缚和认识论上的局限。

 

关键词:奥特加·加塞特,美好生活,技术哲学

 

Abstract

One of the greatest Spanish philosopher, José Ortega y Gasset(1883-1955), whose philosophy of technology would not be so familiar to Chinese academics, occupies an important position in the history of humanities philosophy of technology in 20 century. This dissertation is a study of Ortega’s philosophy of technology, providing us a new viewing perspective on modern technology, and improving the research of the history of philosophy of technology in domestic field.

 

The fundamental question of Ortega’s philosophy of technology is not the question of modern technology, but the question of the moderns. That is the reason why his research of technology practice activities is not on the aspect of material production labor, but on aspects of manifesting human will of “to live well”, being very influential by beliefs, and corresponding to ideals of good life. The uniqueness of Ortega’s philosophy of technology is that he started from the anthropological analysis of what “is” the relationship between human and technology, and went to ethical analysis of what "should be" the relationship between technology and human life. Thus, his discussion of the relationship between technology and human life could go beyond the controversial conclusion of technological utopia or dystopia, and benefit to the human practice.

 

On the structure of Ortega’s philosophy of technology, first, he analyzes the uniqueness of human being from the philosophical anthropology point of view. He argues that human desires more than “live” (el estar) in biological sense, he always demands “to live well” (el bienestar), as well as realizes it with technological activities. In other words, the necessity “to live well” is a fundamental motive force for human to do technological activities. The demand “to live well” is also a crucial idea of how Ortega’s analysis could from the anthropological analysis of what “is” the relationship between human and technology, to the ethical analysis of what "should be" the relationship between technology and human life. Second, Ortega argues that technological activity to “make” human life is a virtue practice to realize good life. Because of this novel idea, Ortega could interpret the relationship between technology and human life beyond the classical interpretation of the theory of the relationship between means and purpose. It could avoid being in dilemma of Subjectivism and Pluralism. Moreover, Ortega further explores those possibilities to realize good life in the age of technology. In some sense, this practical exploration could cover the shortage of traditional discussion of the value of technology.

 

There are four basic parts of this dissertation. Part one, is chapter one which briefly introduces Ortega’s lifetime and theoretical sources of his philosophical thinking. Part two, is chapter two which analyzes the historical position of Ortega’s philosophy of technology in the theoretical framework of modernity. Part three, including chapter three, four and five, is the systemic analysis of Ortega’s philosophy of technology. Part four, chapter six is an evaluation of those theoretical significance and limitations in Ortega’s philosophy of technology.

 

Specifically, the Forward, it briefly describes the current study situation of Ortega’s philosophy of technology. And it sketches out the research content and the research structure of this dissertation.

 

Chapter one introduces the biography of Ortega and his philosophical thinking sources. Generally, his philosophy was born in the context of historical interactions between the particular era and the culture of Iberian Peninsula. Knowing about the context of the time and the culture could benefit our understanding of Ortega’s philosophy of technology.

 

Chapter two analyzes the historical position of Ortega’s philosophy of technology in the theoretical framework of modernity. “What is human?” is the fundamental question in Ortega’s philosophy of technology, as well as the essential issue of modernity. From this, it is necessary to study Ortega’s philosophy of technology in the theoretical framework of modernity. About the question of “what is human?” there is a traditional argument in philosophical anthropology, homo faber and animal rationale. For Ortega, Man, not only question on “what he is”or “what he has”, and also “what he does”. He goes beyond the arguing between homo faber and animal rationale, starting his philosophy of technology from human nature to human life. Moreover, we find the theoretical source of Ortega’s technology optimism from his arguments of freedom.

 

Chapter three, four and five are the systemic analysis of Ortega’s philosophy of technology. Chapter three mainly states Ortega’s idea of technological activity which shows the will “to live well”. Specifically, from the interaction between human and nature point of view, technology born in and served the basic demand “to live well”, at the same time, the demand “to live well” shapes the history of technology. For Ortega, the history of technology which is determined by human beliefs is also the history of self-creative human life. In the current situation, Zeitgeist and our belief in technical progress, produce some crisis in humanity and also in our daily life.

 

Chapter four mainly states Ortega’s idea of technological activities which “create” human life. Human life or my life is the new entity in Ortega’s philosophy, especially in philosophy of technology. From the history point of view, Ortega divides the historical evolution of technology into three stages, analyzes notions of actions in technological activities, points out the phenomena of human “de-naturalized” in modern technological society.

 

Chapter five interprets Ortega’s idea of technological activity which is a virtue practice of human life. This idea makes Ortega’s analysis shift from the anthropological analysis of what “is” the relationship between human and technology, to the ethical analysis of what "should be" the relationship between technology and human life. In addition, based on the analysis of the historical interaction between the elite and the mass, Ortega proposes his political ideal of moral elite administration, justifies the feasibility of technocracy, and attempts to figure out the possibility of realizing good life in technological age.

 

Chapter six is an evaluation of those theoretical significance and limitations of Ortega’s philosophy of technology. The analytic perspective of philosophical anthropology and the value theory of technology are two crucial parts of Ortega’s philosophy of technology. Generally, Ortega’s philosophy of technology has its own theoretical unique feature in the history of humanities philosophy of technology in 20 century. It could inspire our nowadays research in philosophy of technology, but it still has some historical limitations and cognitive limitations.  


Key words: Ortega y Gasset, Good life, Philosophy of technology

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